*Introduction:- ~This is a synovial joint of hinge variety. ~the bony architecture of ankle joint :- tibia,fibula,talus and calcaneum *Articular surfaces:- ~Upper articular surface~inferior articular surface~superior articular surface *Upper articular surface:- ~the upper articular surface is fored by:-~the lower end of the tibia including the medial malleolus.~the lateral malleouls of… Continue reading
Internal oblique muscle :- Muscle detail :- a muscle in the abdominal wall that lies below the external oblique and just above the transverse abdominal muscles . Origin :- Inguinal ligament, Iliac crest and the Lumbodorsal fascia. Insertion :- Linea alba, Pectineal Line of Pubis (via Conjoint tendon) and ribs… Continue reading
External Oblique muscles :- Muscle details :- is the largest and the most superficial (outermost) of the three flat muscles of the lateral anterior abdomen. Origin :- Ribs 5-12 . Insertion :- Xiphoid Process, Outer Lip of the Iliac crest, Pubic Crest, Pubic tubercle, Linea alba, Inguinal Ligament, Anterior Superior… Continue reading
Quadratus lumborum muscle :- Muscle details :- a muscle of the posterior abdominal wall. It is the deepest abdominal muscle and commonly referred to as a back muscle. It is irregular and quadrilateral in shape and broader below than above. Origin :- Posterior border of iliac crest . Insertion :-… Continue reading
Cremaster muscle :- Muscle details :- a muscle that covers the testis and the spermatic cord. Origin:- Inguinal ligament . Insertion :- Tunica vaginalis . Nerve supply :- Genital branch of genitofemoral nerve. Actions :- raise and lower the scrotum.
Pyramidalis muscle :- Muscle details :- a small triangular muscle, anterior to the rectus abdominis muscle, and contained in the rectus sheath. Origin :- pubic symphysis and pubic crest . Insertion :- linea alba . Nerve supply :- Subcostal nerve (T12). Actions:- tensing the linea alba .
Rectus abdominis muscle :- muscle details :- also known as the “abdominal muscle” or “abs”, is a paired muscle running vertically on each side of the anterior wall of the human abdomen, as well as that of some other mammals. Origin :- Crest of pubis . Insertion :- costal cartilages… Continue reading
Transverse abdominal muscle :- Muscle details :- a muscle layer of the anterior and lateral (front and side) abdominal wall which is deep to (layered below) the internal oblique muscle. It is thought by most fitness instructors to be a significant component of the core. Origin :- Iliac crest, inguinal… Continue reading
Serratus posterior superior muscle :- muscle details :- a thin, quadrilateral muscle, situated at the upper and back part of the thorax, deep to the rhomboid muscles. origin :- Nuchal ligament (or ligamentum nuchae) and the spinous processes of the vertebrae C7 through T3. Insertion :- The upper borders of… Continue reading
Serratus posterior inferior muscle :- muscle details :- a muscle of the human body. origin :- Vertebrae: Spinous processes of T11 – L2 . Insertion :- The inferior borders of the 9th through 12th ribs . Nerve :- Intercostal nerves T9 through T12 . Actions:- Depress the lower ribs 9-12,… Continue reading